Nursing Care & Management for Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is an extremely complex mental disorder. As a matter of fact it is probably many illnesses masquerading as one. A biochemical imbalance in the brain is believed to cause symptoms. Recent research reveals that schizophrenia may be a result of faulty neuronal development in the fetal brain, which develops into full-blown illness in late adolescence or early adulthood.

              Schizophrenia causes distorted and bizarre thoughts, perceptions, emotions, movement, and behavior. It cannot be defined as a single illness; rather thought as a syndrome or disease process with many different varieties and symptoms. It is usually diagnosed in late adolescence or early adulthood. Rarely does it manifest in childhood. The peak incidence of onset is 15 to 25 years of age for men and 25 to 35 years of age for women.

The symptoms of schizophrenia are categorized into two major categories:-

  • the positive or hard symptoms which include delusion, hallucinations, and grossly disorganized thinking, speech, and behavior
  • negative or soft symptoms as flat affect, lack of volition, and social withdrawal or discomfort.

Medication treatment can control the positive symptoms but frequently the negative symptoms persist after positive symptoms have abated. The persistence of these negative symptoms over time presents a major barrier to recovery and improved the functioning of client’s daily life.

Types of Schizophrenia

The diagnosis is made according to the client’s predominant symptoms:

  1. Schizophrenia paranoid type – is characterized by persecutory (feeling victimized or spied on) or grandiose delusions, hallucinations, and occasionally, excessively religiosity (delusional focus) or hostile and aggressive behavior.
  2. Schizophrenia disorganized type– is characterized by grossly inappropriate or flat affect, incoherence, loose associations, and extremely disorganized behavior.
  3. Schizophrenia catatonic type– is characterized by marked psychomotor disturbance, either motionless or excessive motor activity. Motor immobility may be manifested by catalepsy (waxy flexibility) or stupor.
  4. Schizophrenia undifferentiated type – is characterized by mixed schizophrenic symptoms (of other types) along with disturbances of thought, affect, and behavior.
  5. Schizophrenia residual type – is characterized by at least one previous, though not a current, episode, social withdrawal, flat affect and looseness of associations.

Treatments and Medications

Currently, there is no method for preventing schizophrenia and there is no cure. Minimizing the impact of disease depends mainly on early diagnosis and, appropriate pharmacological and psycho social treatments. Hospitalization may be required to stabilize ill persons during an acute episode. The need for hospitalization will depend on the severity of the episode. Mild or moderate episodes may be appropriately addressed by intense outpatient treatment. A person with schizophrenia should leave the hospital or outpatient facility with a treatment plan that will minimize symptoms and maximize quality of life.

A comprehensive treatment program can include:

  • Anti-psychotic medication
  • Education & support, for both ill individuals and families
  • Social skills training
  • Rehabilitation to improve activities of daily living
  • Vocational and recreational support
  • Cognitive therapy

Medication is one of the cornerstones of treatment. Once the acute stage of a psychotic episode has passed, most people with schizophrenia will need to take medicine indefinitely. This is because vulnerability to psychosis doesn’t go away, even though some or all of the symptoms do. In North America, atypical or second generation antipsychotic medications are the most widely used. However, there are many first-generation antipsychotic medications available that may still be prescribed. A doctor will prescribe the medication that is the most effective for the ill individual

Another important part of treatment is psychosocial programs and initiatives. Combined with medication, they can help ill individuals effectively manage their disorder. Talking with your treatment team will ensure you are aware of all available programs and medications.

In addition, persons living with schizophrenia may have access to or qualify for income support programs/initiatives, supportive housing, and/or skills development programs, designed to promote integration and recovery.


Birthday Celebration :)

“Dare to think different,
It’s the best way to succeed,
Dare to dream big,
Fuel your fire to achieve.”

“There’s only one of you,
Be as unique as you are,
Take your own journey,
Step by step you’ll go far.”

26/05/2016 is a special day for us in V.Nightingale Care as it is the birthday of our beloved staff , Ms. Parameswari !! One of the seniors staffs in our Nursing Home, she is responsible for all the appointments of the patients. A surprise celebration by other staffs and patients alike. Happy Birthday Ms. Parames and many more returns of the day!!!  🙂



Unfortunately our party firecracker failed at the last minute.. 🙁


Food Glorious Food!!!


Choosing The Right Nursing Home

What Is a Nursing Home?

A nursing home, also commonly known as a Pusat Jagaan , is a place for people who don’t need to be in a hospital but can no longer be cared for at home. This can include people with critical injuries or serious illnesses, or those needing care after surgery. Most nursing homes have aides and skilled nurses on hand 24 hours a day. Always talk to your healthcare provider to find out if a nursing home is the best choice for you or a member of your family.

There are in general few types of Nursing Homes.

  • Hospital-like. This type of nursing home is often set up like a hospital. Members of the staff give medical care, as well as physical, speech, and occupational therapy. There can be a nurses’ station on each floor. As a rule, one or two people live in a room. A number of nursing homes will let couples live together. Things that make a room special, like family photos, are often welcome.


  • Household-like. These facilities are designed to be more like homes, and the day-to-day routine is not fixed. Teams of staff and residents try to create a relaxed feeling. Kitchens are often open to residents, decorations give a sense of home, and the staff is encouraged to develop relationships with residents.


  • Combination. Some nursing homes have a combination of hospital-like and household-like units.


Many nursing homes have visiting doctors who see their patients on site. Other nursing homes have patients visit the doctor’s office.

Tips to Keep in Mind

If you are looking for a nursing home for your loved ones, ask your doctor’s office for some recommendations. Once you know what choices you have, it’s a good idea to:

  • Consider.

What is important to you—nursing care, meals, physical therapy, a religious connection, hospice care? Do you want a place close to family and friends so they can easily visit?

  • Ask

Talk with friends, relatives, social workers, and religious groups to find out what places they suggest. Check with healthcare providers about which nursing homes they feel provide good care. Use their suggestions to make a list of homes that offer the types of services you want.

  • Call

Get in touch with each place on your list. Ask questions about how many people live there and what it costs. Find out about waiting lists if there is any.

  • Visit

Make plans to meet with the director or the care giver of the nursing home. Always lookout for :

  1. Registered Nurse certification
  2. Handicap access
  3. Residents who look well cared for
  4. Warm interaction between staff and residents
  • Talk

Don’t be afraid to ask questions. For example, you can ask the staff to explain any strong odors. Bad smells might indicate a problem; good ones might hide a problem. You might want to find out how long the director and nurse have worked at the nursing home. If key members of the staff change often, that could mean there’s something wrong.

  • Visit again

Make a second visit without calling ahead. Try another day of the week or time of day so you will meet other staff members and see different activities. Stop by at mealtime. Is the dining room attractive and clean? Does the food look tempting?

  • Understand

Once you select a nursing home, carefully read the contract. Question the director or the care giver about anything you don’t understand. Ask a good friend or family member to read over the contract before you sign it.

These are the few of the many ways to find a right Nursing Home.

Stay well and Safe.

From V.Nightingale Care Management